In Bocas del Toro, a total of 1,738 species of plants have been registered, representing 20% of Panama's flora; of the total of these species reported for the province, in the San San Pond Sak Wetland a total of 265 species of plants have been identified, distributed in 92 families.
This wetland is represented by several types of flooded vegetation and non-flooded vegetation patches. Some of the most common arboreal species in this wetland are the orey (Campnosperma panamensis), captive (Prioria copaifera), cerillo (Symphonia globulifera), matumba (Raphia taedigera), red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), Cyrilla racemiflora, sangrillo (Pterocarpus officinalis) and herbaceous species were observed the chestnut (Montrichardia arborescens) and otoe lizard (Dieffenbachia longispatha).
In addition to the arboreal and herbaceous species, epiphytic species such as Brassavola nodosa, Epidendrun nocturnum, Encyclia cordigera and Tillandsia usneoides are also observed within the wetland. A fourth group is the floating aquatic plants, which are found on the banks of the river causes, among them are Hydrocotyle spp, Nymphoides spp and Pistia spp known as water lettuce. The first two have an association with the pastures, fixed by sediment banks.
Mangroves are one of the tropical coastal ecosystems that give the most benefits to the human being. They are developed in protected areas of the swell and strong swells and where there is an appropriate supply of fine sludges rich in organic matter and brackish water.
In the mangrove forest found in the San San Pond Sak Wetland the dominant species are the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) and white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), with an association of plants such as the black well (Acrostichum aureum).
Mangroves are natural energy plantations that can contribute substantially to meeting local energy requirements and provide a livelihood for populations that depend directly on these ecosystems.
In the mangrove forests many species of commercial value come to feed, serving in turn as a breeding ground for most marine species in the coastal zone, and as a refuge for species of fauna that habitually inhabit adjacent forests.
This ecosystem is dominated by the matumba (Raphia taedigera), a specie that forms stands in areas that receive flood waters, during some months of the year. On the periphery of matumba stands, where flooding is lower, species such as cerchia (Symphoniaglobulifera), quince (Gustavia superba) and garlic (Cassipourea elliptica).
The terrestrial herbaceous species associated with matumba are the otoe lizard (Dieffenbachia longispatha), a plant that is characterized by an intense odor in its leaves and stem, the Dieffenbachia, chestnut (Montrichardia arborescens), Urospatha friedrischtallii and some specimens of the genus Spathiphyllum sp. Are abundant in the undergrowth.
In addition, scattered shrubs of the Apocynaceae family, such as Rauwolfia sp., Cydista aequinoctalis, from the Bignoniaceae family and other species associated with this type of vegetation can be observed, such as the sangrillo (Pterocarpus officinalis).